New Study Links Patients with Multiple Phenotypes to Higher Body Weight and BMI

Research from Mayo Clinic published in Nature’s International Journal of Obesity introduces new insights into obesity precision medicine for patients with more than one phenotype.


Menlo Park, Calif. -- March 14, 2024Phenomix Sciences (Phenomix), a precision medicine biotechnology company that brings data intelligence to the treatment of obesity, today announced the results of a new study titled “Cumulative effect of obesity phenotypes on body weight and body mass index,” published online by Nature’s International Journal of Obesity. The study was conducted at Mayo Clinic and co-authored by Phenomix Sciences co-founder, Andres Acosta, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Precision Medicine Obesity Program and associate professor of medicine at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. The study is the first to demonstrate that patients diagnosed with multiple obesity phenotypes have a higher body mass index (BMI) and body weight.


In this cross-sectional study of adult patients with obesity, all 464 patients completed validated tests with the Mayo Clinic to identify each individuals’ obesity phenotypes (Hungry Brain, Hungry Gut, Emotional Hunger and Slow Burn). The patients were defined by two groups for analysis: patients with one or fewer obesity phenotypes and those with two or more obesity phenotypes.


Results of the study showed that of the 464 patients, 63 percent had one phenotype, and 37 percent had two or more phenotypes. The study concluded that having two or more phenotypes was associated with a higher body weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumference compared to patients who had only one or fewer phenotypes. These results highlight the need for a more aggressive and comprehensive approach to weight loss for individuals with multiple obesity phenotypes, that could include diet and exercise, medications or bariatric surgery to achieve optimal weight loss.


“In earlier studies, we discovered that over a quarter (27 percent)1 of patients exhibit multiple phenotypes. This new research shows that having multiple phenotypes of obesity is associated with more severe obesity; higher BMI,” said Dr. Acosta. “The study also offers providers valuable new information to prove the importance of understanding the obesity phenotypes in each patient. With this new information on the cumulative effect of obesity phenotypes, providers can gain insights into the severity of the disease, treat it accordingly, and consider the importance of combination therapy to address all the phenotypes.”


Phenomix is working to eliminate obesity through precision medicine, the science of tailoring interventions such as drugs, lifestyle interventions and surgical techniques to each person based on their individual genetic or phenotypic profiles. The company’s first two tests, MyPhenome Hungry Gut™ and MyPhenome Hungry Brain™, are available and in use by U.S. providers. For more information, visit


Phenomix has licensed the rights to the data and related technology generated in the study from the Mayo Clinic.

About Phenomix Sciences

Phenomix Sciences is a biotechnology pioneer on a mission to conquer obesity globally through the science of phenotyping, the understanding of how genes combined with environmental and behavioral factors can inform obesity treatment plans. Mayo Clinic physicians, scientists, and researchers, Drs. Acosta and Camilleri, founded the company under the belief that the key to understanding obesity is unprecedented access to its clinical and molecular information throughout all stages and phenotypes of the disease.  Phenomix leverages data intelligence to yield better accuracy in predicting individual patient response to specific weight loss interventions and reducing the variability in weight loss results for patients. For more information, please visit


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1)Acosta A, Camilleri M, Abu Dayyeh B, Calderon G, Gonzalez D, McRae A, et al. Selection of antiobesity medications based on phenotypes enhances weight loss: a pragmatic trial in an obesity clinic. Obesity. 2021;29:662–71.